How to Treat Melasma Correctly?

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how to treat melasma properly?

How To Treat Melasma. As explained in the post last week, that Melasma is a problem concerning the excessive skin pigmentation, irregular, and generally shaped patches of brown to black in the face. In many cases, melasma appears in all parts of the skin not covered by clothing, but the most common is in the face such as the cheeks, forehead, upper lip, nose, and chin. Melasma usually attacks the adult age is around 25-40 years age range with most cases in women.

There are several key factors are defined as the cause of melasma. The factors referred to as the cause of melasma is exposure to ultraviolet, genetics, pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy or endocrine dysfunction. For more details, we will discuss these one by one.

Factors Contributing emergence of Melasma:

  1. Sun

Clinically, exposure to sunlight can cause melasma, especially if exposed to sunlight at 09:00 am to 03:00 pm. Why is this dangerous? It has been described in many studies that sunshine at this time contains a broad spectrum of sunlight that can damage the sulfhydryl groups in the epidermis which is an enzyme inhibitor tirozinase by binding Cu ions of the enzyme. Ultraviolet light causes the enzyme tyrosinase inhibition are not in yet, so consequently stimulate melanogenesis namely the excessive formation of melanin by melanocytes cells until the occurrence of hyperpigmentation

  1. Hormones

Hormones that contribute the melasma is estrogen, progesterondan MHS (melanin stimulating hormone). In pregnancy, melasma is usually spread on the third trismester. On the use of the contraceptive pill, melasma appears viewed 1 month until 2 years, having started taking the pill

  1. Drugs

Drugs that can cause melasma, for example hydantoins (antiepileptic), mesantoin, klorpormazin (anti-vomiting), cytostatic, and minoksiklin. these drugs in the dermis layer piled on top and cumulatively can stimulate melanogenesis

  1. Cosmetics

The use of beauty products such as cosmetics and drugs containing phototoxic agents can also cause melasma

  1. Ras

Melasma many have encountered in group hispanic ras and groups of dark-colored skin

What is Melasma
What is Melasma?

For additional information, one of the factors trigger melasma is caused by stress, according to a study that the release of the hormone that stimulates melanocytes due to the effects of stress, this indicates that stress can trigger melasma significantly.

Keep in mind that, melasma treatment takes a long time and gradually. So it is not possible to eliminate it instantly. If you ask, “How long will it take to eliminate melasma?” The answer to this question depends on the severity of melasma arising. Typically, the treatment began to look at weeks 3 and 4 and further required until 10 weeks or more for complete healing. Melasma treatment can be done by applying topical medications that function to inhibit the formation of melanin pigment and lifting. Some drugs used to treat melasma, are: Hydroquinone, Arbutin, Azeleik Acid, Hibiscus Extract.

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Prevention Tips and How to Deal With Melasma

I. Prevention of melasma

  • Prevention of the onset or increase the severity and recurrence of melasma is sun protection
  • patients in required to avoid the sun, especially at at 09.00-15.00
  • We recommend that if out of the house, use an umbrella or a hat width
  • Protect your skin by wearing proper sunscreen, without the use of proper sunscreen then the treatment is difficult to succeed.
  • should use sunscreen 30 minutes before sun exposure
  • note that there are two types of sunscreen, which is of a physical nature which reflect UV rays and chemical nature that absorb UV light.
  • Eliminate the factors that cause melasma, for example, stop using the contraceptive pill, stop using cosmetics that contain color or perfume, preventing drugs such as hydantoins, sitostika, anti-malaria and minokiklin.

II. Treatment of Melasma

  1. Topical Treatment
  • Hydroquinone

Hydroquinone in use at a concentration of 2-5%. The cream is in use at night, accompanied by the use of sunscreen during the day. Commonly looked improvement in 6-8 weeks and continue until 6 months. The side effects are allergic contact dermatitis or Irritant. Upon termination of Hydroquinone, frequent recurrences.

  • Retinoic Acid
Retinoic acid

0.1% retinoic acid is primarily used as an adjunct therapy or combination therapy. The cream is in use at night, because during the day the photo-degradation can occur Side effects include erythema, desquamation and sensitization photos

  • Aseleat Acid

Aseleat acid is a safe drug for the wear. Aseleat Acid treatment 20% for 6 months gives a good effect. Side effects, a burning sensation and itching

  1. Systemic Treatment
  • Ascorbic acid / Vitamin C

Vitamin C has the effect of changing the oxide form melanin to melanin forms of reduction to lighten in color and prevent the formation of melanin to alter kinon DOPA, into DOPA

  •  Glutathione

Glutathione forms are compounds sufhidril reduction is potentially inhibit the formation of melanin by joining the cuprum of tyrosinase.

  1. Special Measures
  • Exfoliation Chemical

Chemical exfoliation may help treat disorders of hyperpigmentation. Chemical exfoliation is done by applying a 50-70% glycolic acid for 4-6 minutes, every 3 weeks for 6 times. Prior lakuakn chemical exfoliation, glycolic sam dibrikan cream 10% for 14 days.

  • Laser Surgery

Laser surgery using lasers Q-swiched Ruby and argon laser, a relapse can also occur in the future.

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